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Underflow occurs when the number x is closer to 0 than any of the possible binary representations. In most cases, the number x is then replaced by zero. An underflow example using R code appears below:

print(10 ^ -200, digits = 22) # roundoff, but no underflow
print(10 ^ -400, digits = 22) # underflow
## 9.999999999999999821003e-201
## 0
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