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Overflow occurs when a number has a big absolute value that's outside the range of possible binary representations. In the case of integers, this occurs when the number of bits in the representation is too small to represent the corresponding number. When overflow occurs, the number is replaced by either the closest binary representation or is marked as an overflow and considered unavailable. Here's an example in R:

print(10 ^ 100) # no overflow
print(10 ^ 500) # overflow, marked by Inf value
## 1e+100
## Inf
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