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## Scatter Plots

A scatter plot graphs the relationships between two numeric variables.
It graphs each pair of variables as a point in a two-dimensional space whose
coordinates are the corresponding `(x, y)`

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# To create a scatter plot with the graphics package,

# call plot with two dataframe columns

plot(faithful$waiting,

faithful$eruptions,

main = "Using plot",

xlab = "waiting time (min)",

ylab = "eruption time (min)")

# The arguments pch, col, and cex modify the marker's shape, color, and size

plot(faithful$waiting,

faithful$eruptions,

pch = 17,

col = 2,

cex = 1.2,

main = "Specifying pch, col, and cex",

xlab = "waiting times (min)",

ylab = "eruption time (min)")

# Distinguish the points based on the value of another dataframe column

plot(mtcars$hp,

mtcars$mpg,

pch = mtcars$am,

cex = 1.2,

main = "MPG vs. HP by Transmission",

xlab = "horsepower",

ylab = "miles per gallon")

legend("topright", c("automatic", "manual"), pch = c(0, 1))

# Using qplot

qplot(x = waiting,

y = eruptions,

data = faithful,

main = "Using qplot - Waiting Times (sec) vs. Eruptions (min)")

# The graph below shows a scatter plot of car weights vs mpg

qplot(x = wt,

y = mpg,

data = mtcars,

main = "Using qplot - MPG vs. Weight (x1000 lbs)")

# Denoting the number of cylinders by size using the size argument

qplot(x = wt,

y = mpg,

data = mtcars,

size = cyl,

main = "Using qplot with Size - MPG vs. Weight (x1000 lbs) by Cylinder")

# Alternatively, color can be used to encode the number of cylinders

qplot(x = wt,

y = mpg,

data = mtcars,

color = cyl,

main = "Using qplot with Color - MPG vs. Weight (x1000 lbs) by Cylinder")

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