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Histograms

A histogram divides the range of numeric values into bins and displays the number of data values falling within each bin. The width of a bin influences the level of detail:

# Using the hist function to show Old Faithful's eruption times
hist(faithful$eruptions,
breaks = 20,
xlab = "eruption times (min)",
ylab = "count",
main = "Using hist")
# Old Faithful's waiting time to the next eruption using qplot
qplot(x = waiting,
data = faithful,
binwidth = 3,
main = "Using qplot - Waiting Time to Next Eruption (min)")
# The same histogram but using ggplot this time
ggplot(faithful, aes(x = waiting)) + geom_histogram(binwidth = 1) +
ggtitle("Using ggplot - Waiting Time to Next Eruption (min)")
# Histograms can show density where the height of each bin times its width
# equals the count of samples falling in the bin divided by the total count
ggplot(faithful, aes(x = waiting, y = ..density..)) +
geom_histogram(binwidth = 4) +
ggtitle("Using ggplot to Show Density")
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