Reactive Programming with Reactor 3


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Introduction to Reactive Programming

Reactor 3 is a library built around the Reactive Streams specification, bringing the paradigm of Reactive Programming on the JVM.

In this course, you'll familiarize with the Reactor API. So let's make a quick introduction to the more general concepts in Reactive Streams and Reactive Programming.


Reactive Programming is a new paradigm in which you use declarative code (in a manner that is similar to functional programming) in order to build asynchronous processing pipelines. It is an event-based model where data is pushed to the consumer, as it becomes available: we deal with asynchronous sequences of events.

This is important in order to be more efficient with resources and increase an application's capacity to serve large number of clients, without the headache of writing low-level concurrent or and/or parallelized code.

By being built around the core pillars of being fully asynchronous and non-blocking, Reactive Programming is an alternative to the more limited ways of doing asynchronous code in the JDK: namely Callback based APIs and Future.

It also facilitates composition, which in turn makes asynchronous code more readable and maintainable.

Reactive Streams

The Reactive Streams specification is an industry-driven effort to standardize Reactive Programming libraries on the JVM, and more importantly specify how they must behave so that they are interoperable. Implementors include Reactor 3 but also RxJava from version 2 and above, Akka Streams, Vert.x and Ratpack.

It contains 4 very simple interfaces as well as a TCK, which shouldn't be overlooked since it is the rules of the specification that bring the most value to it.

From a user perspective however, it is fairly low-level. Reactor 3 aims at offering an higher level API that can be leverage in a large breadth of situations, building it on top of Reactive Streams Publisher.


In reactive stream sequences, the source Publisher produces data. But by default, it does nothing until a Subscriber has registered (subscribed), at which point it will push data to it.

Publisher and Subscriber

Reactor adds the concept of operators, which are chained together to describe what processing to apply at each stage to the data. Applying an operator returns a new intermediate Publisher (in fact it can be thought of as both a Subscriber to the operator upstream and a Publisher for downstream). The final form of the data ends up in the final Subscriber that defines what to do from a user perspective.


Which of these types are defined in the Reactive Streams specification?
In order to create a Reactive Stream Publisher or Subscriber...
Publisher<Integer> source = Flux.range(1, 10);
In the code above, what did I forget?
Flux<String> flux = Flux.just("A"); -> "foo" + s);
I expected the code above to emit "fooA" but it didn't, why?

In the next lesson, we'll dive into the Reactor API, starting with its two specialized Publisher

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