Avoiding Null Anti Patterns


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In this playground, we will learn why Java's null value should always be avoided and what solutions exist to bypass it.

The null problem

Typically, when writing Java code, you will find yourself asking questions such as:

  • What if this API returns null?
  • If so, what does null mean?
  • Does this API accept null?
  • Does null represent an error or normal behaviour?

Eventually, you will see null checks everywhere, especially when dealing with external code.

A typical confusion situation:

Man findABrotherInLawOf(Man user) {
    Man anyBrotherInLaw = null;
    Woman userWife = user.getWife();

    if (userWife != null) {
        List<Man> brothers = userWife.getBrothers();

        if (brothers != null) {
            Battery firstBrother = brothers.get(0);

            if (firstBrother != null) {
                anyBrotherInLaw = firstBrother;

    return anyBrotherInLaw;

So many nulls and this code snippet still has the potential to crash because of a runtime null error! What if user turns out to be null? Should it be necessary to check if brothers is null? Isn't there a simpler way to write this piece of code to make it easier to both maintain and read?


The main issue with null is its very existence. It doesn't even have a common semantical meaning. For example, what does null mean here?

phoneNumbers.get("Bob") // 202-555-0167
phoneNumbers.get("Ted") // null, because Ted has no phone
phoneNumbers.get("Alice") // null, because Alice is unknown

It wouldn't be so bad if the compiler could warn you when you risk a NullPointerException due to bad null handling. However, it will only crash at runtime and direct you to a random spot in the middle of some code snippet, quite distant from the source of the problem.

Let's take a look at how to avoid the more common null-based problems 🐛.

The full source and code of this course is available on GitHub. Please feel free to come up with proposals to improve it.

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