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Tuples and Constructors
IDP4 can handle more data than just numbers, strings and Booleans. In this section we introduce more advanced types.
Constructing tuples is straightforward: just write a tuple of expressions like this:
(x,y,z). Tuples of any arity (except 1) are supported. This means that the empty tuple
() exists. As wel as the 8-ary tuple
When you get a tuple as input you should also be able to deconstruct it. You can do this in a number of ways.
- The simplest one is to use the tuple notation at the lefthand side of a definition.
(a,b) := x. This means that you define
ato be the first component of the binary tuple
bto be the second one.
- Tuple deconstruction is also possible as locally scoped argument of a function definiton, in which case you assume a function to take tuples as its input. For instance,
f (a,b) := a*bis a unary function which takes a binary tuple and multiplies its components. This also works with anonymous functions
\(a,b) -> a * b.
- You can use a case-construct to deconstruct the tuple.
case x of (a,b) -> a+b;. This expressions deconstructs the tuple
xand locally introduces the new variables
bto evaluate the expression
a+b, which is the evaluation of this tuple.
Warning: Tuple deconstructions are always definitions, which never form constraints on their own. As such, you can not deconstruct a tuple with
(a,a) := x to enforce that the components of
x are equal. Use
(a,b) := x and
a = b instead.
It is easy to get lost in the data when a lot of tuples are nested. For this reason we can use constructors. They are declared like this:
s/1 :: constructor for a unary constructor named
s. Constructors without arguments are also supported
nil/0 :: constructor.
All the techniques for deconstructing tuples generalize to constructors, except that you need to use square brackets
] instead of round brackets
- You can pattern match the left side of the definition like this:
s [x] := y.
- Using patterns in the function definition is also allowed.
- Case-constructs also work for constructed types, it is even possible to match multiple patterns in one case like this
case x of s[y] -> y ; nil  -> z;.Patterns are handled top to bottom, and the first pattern that matches corresponds to the value of the case expression. So the expression
case x of s[s[nil ]] -> 5 ; s[x] -> 2 ; x -> 0;.will map the Peano representation of 2 to 5, all other successors to 2, and everything which is not a successor of something to 0.
Note again that square brackets are used when deconstructing constructors. This serves to differentiate between
f x := y. which declares a new function
f which is the constant function to
f [x] := y. which declares the new symbol
x as removing the outer constructor
nil we can now do some Peano arithmetic.
The case-construct can be used in even more circumstances. In the matching part of a case expression you can also write a fixed number or string. An underscore is handled as a don't care-pattern and matches everything.
You can split definitions in to multiple lines as syntactical sugar for a case-construct. This allows us to for example define the factorial function.